The one-to-three ratio of this orange juice–based vinaigrette can be slightly altered by adding 1/2 teaspoon vinegar to give it more tang. Black pepper has similar emulsifying properties to mustard seeds and keeps this dressing emulsified longer than a simple oil-and-juice combination.
1. To make Cracked Pepper Vinaigrette: Supreme oranges by trimming ends, then standing fruit upright. Remove peel and pith with knife, following curve of fruit from top to bottom. Hold fruit over bowl, and cut sections along membranes as if you were slicing out wedges. Set orange supremes aside, and squeeze membrane “skeleton” over bowl to release remaining juice. Reserve 1 Tbs. juice for vinaigrette.
2. Whisk together 1 Tbs. orange juice, vinegar (if using), cracked pepper, and garlic in bowl. Whisk in grapeseed and olive oils until emulsified. Stir in salt (if using). Let stand 20 minutes.
3. To make Salad: Toss together fennel, romaine, red onion, and orange segments in large bowl. Toss with Cracked Pepper Vinaigrette, and garnish with Parmesan.